V. Khoma, L. Gnatyshyna, V. Martinyuk, T. Mackiv, K. Yunko, R. Formanchuk, V. Baranovskii, M. Gladyuk, L. Manusadžianas, O. Stoliar


Glyphosate is a weed killer used worldwide. Its toxicity to aquatic organisms was investigated mostly at acute high levels of exposure. The study aimed at evaluating the effect of low glyphosate concentration in the combination with pharmaceutical or heating to freshwater bivalve mollusks. We exposed the mussels Unio tumidus to glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup MAX (Rn, 16.9 µg L -1 or 40 nM of glyphosate, roughly a half of PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentration) estimate derived from multispecies data), chlorpromazine (Cpz, 18.0 µg L -1 or 56 nM), the combination of Rn and heating (25 o C, RnT), and the combination of Rn and Cpz (RnCpz) during 14 days. The responses of oxidative stress were evaluated in the digestive gland. The enzyme activities changed only in the exposures containing Rn (increase of superoxide dismutase) and Cpz (decrease of catalase), whereas the elevation of total glutathione (GSH) level was indicated in all exposed groups except Rn and of metallothionein-associated thiols (MTSH) in all groups except Cpz. Analysis of metallothionein by means of size-exclusion chromatography did not indicate substantial oxidative changes in any group. Lipid peroxidation increased in all exposures, maximally up to 16.6%. The total balance of antioxidant versus prooxidative changes increased in all exposures containing Rn (by approx. 3 times in RnT-group), while decreased in the Cpz-group. Hence, combined exposures distort prominently the oxidative stress responses to xenobiotics in the freshwater mussels even at low, nanomolar concentrations. The ability of Rn to induce MTSH seems to be the decisive input in the antioxidant defence of the mussels affected by the mixed physical/chemical exposures.


Bivalve mollusk; Roundup; Heating, Chlorpromazine; Antioxidants; Metallothioneins; Thiolome.

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