O. S. Fishchuk


In the gynoecium of L. aestivum there are synascidiate, hemisynascidiate, symplicate, and asymplicate vertical zones. The longest zone is the fertile hemisynascidiate zone and the shortest is the synascidiate zone in the ovary. It was discovered that in L. aestivum the peduncle consists of 12 vascular bundles, which are reorganized into two circles of bundles, the outer with massive leading bundles, departing as dorsal bundles of perianth, traces of perianth tepals and septal bundles of carpels and inner circle of bundles over the nests are divided into three groups of ventral carpel bundles are lined up on four, which are located in the center of the ovary and providing nutrition to the ovules. Dorsal carpels bundles are double. Above the locule, ventral bundles of the carpel, as well as the double septal bundles, merge with the dorsal bundles and form a dorsal vein. The outer tepals of the simple perianth have nine vascular traces, and the inner tepals of the perianth have eight vascular traces. Traces of stamens are single-bundle, formed from traces of perianth tepals. The ovary has features of the early stages of fruit morphogenesis and adaptation to disclosure, such as differentiation of mesocarp and endocarp cells, double dorsal bundles of carpels. Structural flower features related to pollen proposal as reward pollinators. Since ovary is a structural basis of the fruit, histological ovary wall differentiation reflects the features of the subsequent morphogenesis of the fruit.


Leucojum aestivum; flower morphology; vascular anatomy; gynoecium


Al-faris H. D. H., Bulduk I., Kahraman A. Biochemical and Micro-morphoanatomical Investigations on Leucojum aestivum L. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca. 2019. 47 (4). 1382–1393. doi https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha47411733

Andreychuk R., Odintsova A. Actual state of carpological studies in the family Campanulaceae Juss. with regard to its systematics. Studia Biologica. 2020. 14 (2). 95–116. doi: 10.30970/sbi.1402.616

Arslan M., Yildirim A. B., Ozkan E., Oktelik F.B., Turker A. U. Monthly variation of pharmaceutically valuable alkaloids, galanthamine and lycorine, in summer snowflake (Leucojum aestivum L.). Fresenius Environmental Bulletin. 2020. 29 (04A). 2670–2677.

Bareka E.-P., Kamari G., Phitos D. Cytogeographic study of the genus Leucojum (Amaryllidaceae) in Greece. Bocconea. 2003. 16 (2). 529–536.

Barykina R. P., Veselova T. D., Deviatov A. G., Djalilova H. H., Iljina G. M., Chubatova N. V. Spravochnik po botanicheskoy mikrotehnike. Osnovyi i metodyi [Handbook of the botanical microtechniques]. Izdatelstvo Moskovskogo universiteta, Moskva, 2004. 312 s.

Chase M. W., Christenhusz M. J. M., Fay M. F., Byng J. W., Judd W. S., Soltis D. E., Mabberley D. J., Sennikov A. N., Soltis P. S., Stevens P. F. The angiosperm phylogeny group. An update of the angiosperm phylogeny group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 2016. 181. 1–20. doi:10.1111/boj.12385

Chase M. W., Reveal J. L., Fay M. F. A subfamilial classification for the expanded asparagalean families Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceae and Xanthorrhoeaceae. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 2009. 161 (2). 132–136. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00999.x

Daumann E. Das Blütennektarium der Monocotyledonen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung seiner systematischen und phylogenetischen. Bedeutung Feddes Repertorium. 1970. 80 (7–8), 463–590.

Fishchuk O., Odintsova A., Sulborska A. Gynoecium structure in Dracaena fragrans (L.) Ker Gawl., Sansevieria parva N.E. Brown and Sansevieria trifasciata Prain (Asparagaceae) with septal emphasis on the structure of the septal nectary. Acta Agrobotanica. 2014. 66 (4), 55–64. https://doi.org/10.5586/aa.2013.051

García N., Meerow A. W., Arroyo-Leuenberger S., Oliveira R. S., Dutilh J. H., Soltis P. S., Judd W. S. Generic classification of Amaryllidaceae tribe Hippeastreae. Taxon. 2019. 68 (3). 425–612. https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.12062

Kohut E., Kopor Z., Nagy B., Csoma Z., Hadnagy I. Evaluation of morphometric parameters in case of Leucojum vernum L. from the peres forest in Velyka Dobron wildlife reserve, western Ukraine. Acta Biologica Marisiensis Journal. 2019. 2 (2). 26–35 https://doi.org/10.2478/abmj-2019-0008

Leinfellner W. Der Bauplan des syncarpen Gynoeceums. Oesterreichische. Botanische Zeitschrift. 1950. 97 (3–5). 403–436.

Lipnicki L., Gruszka W. Locality of spring snowflake Leucoium vernum in Barlinek Forest. Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of Sciences. 2019. 75 (2). 155–158.

Meerow A. W., Snijman D. A. Amaryllidaceae. In: Kubitzki, K., Huber, H., Rudall, P. J. Stevens, P. S., Studzel, T. (ed.). The families and genera of vascular plants. III. Flowering plants: Monocotyledons: Lilianae (except Orchidaceae) Springer, Berlin, (1998). рр. 83–110.

Meerow A. W., Francisco-Ortega J., Schnell R. J. Phylogenetic relationships and biogeography within the Eurasian clade of Amaryllidaceae based on plastid ndhF and nrDNA ITS sequences: lineage sorting in a reticulate area? Systematic Botany. 2006. 31 (1). 42–60. doi:10.1600/036364406775971787

Odintsova A., Fishchuk O. The flower morphology in three Convallariaceae species with various attractive traits. Acta Agrobotanica. 2017. 70 (1). 1705–1719. doi.org/10.5586/aa.1705

Rasmussen F. N., Frederiksen S., Johansen B., Jorgensen L. B., Petersen G., Seberg O. Fleshy Fruits in Liliiflorous Monocots. Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany. 2006. 22 (1). 135–147.

Smets E. F., Ronse De Craene L. P., Caris P., Rudall P. Floral nectaries in Monocotyledons: Distribution and evolution. Monocots II: Systematics and Evolution. CSIRO, Melbourne, (2000). 230–240.

Sparks T. H., Mizer, T., Wójtowic, W., Tryjanowsk, P. Synchrony in the phenology of a culturally iconic spring flower. International Journal of Biometeorology. 2012. 56. 407–409. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-011-0435-4

Takhtajan A. Flowering Plants. 2nd ed. Springer, 2009. 871 s.

Thadeo M., Hampilos K. E., Stevenson D. W. Anatomy of fleshy fruits in the Monocots. American Journal of Botany. 2015. 102 (11). 1–23.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.25128/2078-2357.20.3-4.4


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 O. S. Fishchuk

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.