BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SOFT WHEAT GRAIN (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZERS

Yu. D. Martsinyshyn, S. V. Pyda

Abstract


The article, based on the analysis of scientific works, presents the research findings of the influence of mineral, organic and organo-mineral fertilizer on the biochemical composition of soft wheat grain. It is shown that seed productivity and quality of wheat grain depend on the provision of plants with nutrients during the growth season, resistance to stress factors and biological characteristics of the variety. The yield of winter wheat increases due to super-strong and extra-strong varieties, but the quality of grain, which is negatively correlated with productivity, decreases. Fertilizers are a significant factor in improving the quality of wheat grain, and their use allows to obtain high quality baking flour. Application of different types of organic fertilizers (cattle manure, chicken manure) and green manures (wheat-wheat, oat-pea, mustard) results in an increase in the gluten content from 24.2 to 25.6–27.7 % in grain winter wheat. The application of manure also contributed to the accumulation of proteins in the grain. The quality of wheat grain (nutritional value and baking properties) depends on both the protein content and their amino acid composition. Nitrogen fertilizers have been shown to increase the protein content and the amount of essential amino acids in grain and improve their amino acid composition, but their application, especially in higher doses, reduces the baking properties of wheat flour. The use of nitrogen fertilizers also increases the content of trace elements in wheat grain and improves the nutritional value of this important food. Foliar feeding of plants with chelated micro-fertilizers on the background of complete mineral nutrition (N60P60K60) also improves the quality of grain, while increasing the content of proteins and gluten. Pre-sowing seed treatment and foliar fertilization of plants in the phase of tillering and earing with liquid organo-mineral fertilizer Polidon Bio Zernovyi special purpose for winter wheat, against the background of mineral nutrition (N60P60K60), increased the protein content in grain according to experimental variants and promoted raw gluten growth.

Keywords


soft wheat; grain biochemical composition; proteins; gluten; fertilizers

References


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.25128/2078-2357.21.1-2.12

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