L. R. Hrytsak, O. Yu. Mayorova, M. Z. Prokopyak, N. M. Drobyk


Peculiarities of phytocoenotic association and and consortium relations of rare species of Gentiana lutea L., Gentiana punctata L., Gentiana acaulis L. are analyzed. All habitats of G. lutea populations are spatially associated with the bottoms of glacial cauldrons, krummholz with the species of Duschekia viridis (Chaix) DC, as well as herbaceous highland cenoses. These groups are autochthonous in terms of phytocenotic association of G. lutea. Most often, populations of G. lutea are part of the associations Pulmonario–Duschekietum viridis, Soldanello–Nardetum, in particular two of its subassociations: S.–N. gentianetosum, S.–N. narcissetosum, as well as subassociations Vaccinietum gentianosum, Calamagrostidetum gentianosum. Heavy pastoral load on highland cenoses led to the transformation of subassociations S.–N. gentianetosum and S.–N. Narcissetosum. Diagnostic species, Narcissus poeticus ssp. angustifolius (Curtis) Asch. et Graebn., G. lutea, in particular, have been replaced by dense-grained cereal Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) P. Beauv. The species of G. punctata tends to pine scrubs (Pinion mughi alliance), which are part of the alpine mat-grass (order Nardetalia), and also occur among subalpine shrub communities (Loiseleurio-Vaccinietea class), high-grass groups (Mulgedio-Aconitetea class) along the upper forest boundaries in riverbeds, descending into the forest belt (union Adenostylion alliariae). G. punctata is a diagnostic species of the endemic association Hyperico grisebachii – Calamagrostietum villosae and is a component part of the endemic associations Festucetum picturatae, Rhododendretum myrtifolii, a rare relict group of the ice age Centrario–Vaccinietum gaultherioides. The species composition of cenoses including G. punctata is also undergoing transformation affected by heavy pastoral load. In areas with heavy grazing, small clusters of G. punctata in the subalpine zone remain mostly in the gaps between the thickets of Pinus mugo Turra, D. viridis s and Juniperus communis subsp. nana. As in the case of G. lutea, the unfavourable species adjacent to G. punctata is D. saespitosa of high viability. Normal development of G. acaulis populations was found only in loosely coated cenoses comprised of Potentilla aurea L., Vaccinium myrtillus L., Festuca picturata Pils, Carex sempervirens Vill., Thymus sp., Anthoxanthum alpinum A. et D. Löve, as well as N. stricta and D. caespitosa (L.) Beauv. of low vitality. Adverse phytocenotic conditions for the growth of G. acaulis create species of D. viridis, Achillea submillefolium L., as well as N. stricta and D. caespitosa of high vitality. The consortia of the three species under study include 36 families of animals, with the varying degree of association: obligate (Apidae, Syrphidae, Formicidae, Diptera, Artropoda, Lumbricidae, Acariformes) and optional (Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Noridaidait, Gectuidae, Gectuidae, Chrysomelidae, Cantharididae, Alleculidae).


Gentiana lutea L.; Gentiana punctata L.; Gentiana acaulis L.; phytocentric association; consortium relations


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